My comments related to the O2 are based on hundreds of bikes that I have dynoed. The amount and area of closed loop varies between brands and models and the effect can go from unnoticed to unbelievable. There are models where closed loop can go from 10% to 80% throttle and cover an area up to and sometimes above 5,000 rpm. I can tell you that on a Honda Grom with a stock ecu you can only tune 90% throttle and above. Not there there is much happening on a Grom below that, but it shows where electronics are going. The 2017 CBR1000RR is a total waste to hang a powercommander on because of how limited they made the fuel map. Fuel injection itself became a necessity when the EPA leaned on motor vehicles in the late seventies and early eighties. The early carbureted bikes were lean and cold blooded back then because of the restrictions. Unfortunately, the EPA did not fade away and manufacturers are still forced to meet certain standards, especially with air/fuel, hence we still have PAIR systems and CATS and all sorts of nonsense. The introduction of O2s was not a performance move!